Laser Crystals: Ti:Sapphire Crystal

Ti:Sapphire crystal (Titanium Doped Sapphire ) is the most widely used tunable solid-state laser material combining the supreme physical and optical properties with the extremely broad lasing range.  Its lasing bandwidth can support pulses < 10fs making it the crystal of choice for femtosecond mode-locked oscillators and amplifiers.  The absorption band of Ti:Sapphire centers at ~ 490 nm so it may be conveniently pumped by various laser sources such as argon ion lasers or frequency doubled Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, Nd:YVO4 lasers at ~ 530nm.


  • The tunable wavelengths that cover a broad range from 700 to 1000 nm make Ti:Sapphire an excellent substitute for dye lasers in many applications.
  • Doubling by NLO crystals such as BBO in an ultra-thin, Ti:Sapphire can be used to generate UV and DUV (up to 193 nm ) laser with ultrafast pulses below 10fs.
  • Ti:Sapphire is also widely usedas the pump source of OPOs to expand the tunable range.

Basic Properties

Chemical formula Ti3+:Al2O3
Crystal structure Hexagonal a=4.758, c=12.991
Density 3.98 g/cm3
Melting point 2040oC
Mohs hardness 9
Thermal conductivity 52 W/m/K
Laser action 4-level vibronic
Fluorescence lifetime 3.2 µs (T=300K)
Tuning range 660 – 1050 nm
Absorption range 400 – 600 nm
Emission peak 795 nm
Absorption peak 488 nm
Refractive index 1.76 @ 800 nm


We offer Ti:sapphire specifications:

Orientation: Optical axis C normal to rod axis
Ti2O3 concentration: 0.06 – 0.5wt %
Figure Of Merit (FOM): 150~250 Upon customers request
End configurations: Flat/Flat or Brewster/Brewster ends
Flatness:  l /8 @ 633 nm
Parallelism: 10 arc sec
Surface finishing: 10/5 scratch/dig to MIL-O-13830A
Wavefront distortion: l /4 per inch



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