Birefringent Crystals: Yttrium Orthovanadate (YVO4)

The Yttrium Orthovanadate (YVO4) is a positive uniaxial crystal grown with Czochralski method. It has good temperature stability and physical and mechanical properties. It is ideal for optical polarizing components because of its wide transparency range and large birefringence. It is an excellent synthetic substitute for Calcite (CaCO3) and Rutile (TiO2) crystals in many applications including fiber optic isolators and circulators, interleavers, beam displacers and other polarizing optics(refer to table 1).

Table 1.Comparison of basic properties betweenYVO4 and Other Birefringent Crystals.

YVO4 TiO2 CaCO3 LiNbO3
Thermal Expansion (/℃) c-axis 11.4×10-6 9.2×10-6 26.3×10-6 16.7×10-6
a-axis 4.4×10-6 7.1×10-6 5.4×10-6 7×10-6
Refractive Index no 1.9447@1550nm 2.454@1530nm 1.6346@1497nm 2.2151@1440nm
ne 2.1486@1550nm 2.710@1530nm 1.4774@1497nm 2.1413@1440nm
Birefringence(ne-no) 0.2039@1550nm 0.256@1530nm -0.1572@1497nm -0.0738@1440nm
Mohs Hardness 5 6.5 3 5
Deliquescence None None Weak None
Transparency range 0.4-5μm 0.4-5μm 0.35-2.3μm 0.4-5μm


We offer Nd:YVO4 specifications

Dimension Tolerance ±0.1mm
Flatness λ/10 @ 632.8nm
Wavefront distortion λ/10@ 632.8nm
Surface Quality 10/5  per MIL-O-13830B
Parallelism 10″
Perpendicularity 10′
Bevel/Chamfer <0.1mm@45deg.
Chips <0.1mm
Clear Aperture >95%
Coating AR/HR/PR coating upon customer’s request
Damage Threshold   750MW/CM2 at 1064nm, TEM00, 10ns, 10Hz
Quality Warranty Period    One year under proper use

YVO4 crystals with diffusion bonded Nd: YVO4 are also available from us.


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